Qemu

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== QEMU support status regarding hppa/parisc ==
 
== QEMU support status regarding hppa/parisc ==
  
Starting with QEMU version 2.12 (April 2018), qemu fully supports 32-bit hppa user emulation (hppa-linux-user) and 32-bit hppa system emulation (qemu-system-hppa).
+
Since QEMU version 2.12 (April 2018), qemu fully supports 32-bit hppa user emulation (hppa-linux-user) and 32-bit hppa system emulation (qemu-system-hppa).
 
All necessary changes have been merged into the [https://git.qemu.org/?p=qemu.git;a=summary upstream qemu git tree].
 
All necessary changes have been merged into the [https://git.qemu.org/?p=qemu.git;a=summary upstream qemu git tree].
  
 
PA-RISC machines need a firmware ("PDC" = Processor Dependend Code).
 
PA-RISC machines need a firmware ("PDC" = Processor Dependend Code).
Qemu includes a precompiled PDC firmware for hppa ([https://git.qemu.org/?p=qemu.git;a=blob;f=pc-bios/hppa-firmware.img;h=86930974b9e12bec214fb464eee443a0d844e6ff;hb=HEAD pc-bios/hppa-firmware.img]), which is based on a [https://github.com/hdeller/seabios-hppa/commits/parisc_firmware fork of SeaBIOS ].
+
Qemu comes with a precompiled PDC firmware for hppa ([https://git.qemu.org/?p=qemu.git;a=blob;f=pc-bios/hppa-firmware.img;h=86930974b9e12bec214fb464eee443a0d844e6ff;hb=HEAD pc-bios/hppa-firmware.img]), which is based on a [https://github.com/hdeller/seabios-hppa/commits/parisc_firmware fork of SeaBIOS ].
  
 
The emulated machine is a [https://www.openpa.net/systems/hp-visualize_b132l_b160l_b180l.html HP B160L desktop machine], with one or more 32-bit PA7100LC CPUs.
 
The emulated machine is a [https://www.openpa.net/systems/hp-visualize_b132l_b160l_b180l.html HP B160L desktop machine], with one or more 32-bit PA7100LC CPUs.
  
The QEMU emulation is able to run Linux and HP-UX. HP-UX support still needs improvement which is being worked on.
+
The QEMU emulation is able to run Linux and HP-UX.
  
QEMU on parisc has been made available by:
+
QEMU on parisc has been developed by:
 
* [mailto:rth@twiddle.net Richard Henderson]: QEMU CPU emulation (32-bit only), QEMU hardware divers
 
* [mailto:rth@twiddle.net Richard Henderson]: QEMU CPU emulation (32-bit only), QEMU hardware divers
 
* [mailto:deller@gmx.de Helge Deller]: QEMU hardware drivers, SeaBIOS PDC firmware
 
* [mailto:deller@gmx.de Helge Deller]: QEMU hardware drivers, SeaBIOS PDC firmware
 
* [mailto:svens@stackframe.org Sven Schnelle]: Lots of fixes all over QEMU and SeaBIOS (SCSI, CPU emulation fixes, SeaBIOS PDC firmware)
 
* [mailto:svens@stackframe.org Sven Schnelle]: Lots of fixes all over QEMU and SeaBIOS (SCSI, CPU emulation fixes, SeaBIOS PDC firmware)
  
== Ready-to-run QEMU image for parisc ==
+
== QEMU status overview ==
  
Download Debian hard disc image:
+
Qemu versions v6.2.0, v6.1.1 and v6.0.1 run stable, but miss this patch:
wget http://backup.parisc-linux.org/qemu/debian-10-hdd-img.tar.bz2
+
* [https://lists.nongnu.org/archive/html/qemu-devel/2021-12/msg04501.html target/hppa: Fix atomic_store_3 for STBY]
Unzip image:  
+
 
tar xvfj debian-10-hdd-img.tar.bz2
+
== QEMU runtime options ==
Run qemu:
+
 
  ./hppa-softmmu/qemu-system-hppa -drive file=debian-10-hdd.img -nographic -serial mon:stdio -accel tcg,thread=multi -smp cpus=4
+
Standard qemu options:
Log in as '''root''', root password is "'''rootme'''"
+
* -m 1G            - tell machine to have 1G of memory
 +
* -accel tcg,thread=multi  - always use this to enable parallel tcg (otherwise all guest CPUs run on one host CPU)
 +
* -smp cpus=4      - define number of CPUs in the guest (maximum CPUs: 32)
 +
* -boot menu=on    - Firmware: enable interactive mode (same as "BOOT PRI '''IPL'''")
 +
* -boot order=c    - Firmware: Boot from first hard disc
 +
* -boot order=d    - Firmware: Boot from first CD/DVD
 +
* -boot order=g-m  - Firmware: Boot from SCSI ID0 ("g"), SCSI ID1 ("h"), ... SCSI ID7 ("m")
 +
* -serial mon:stdio - multiplex serial console to stdout
 +
* -nographic      - disable artist graphic card emulation, so no graphics output
 +
* -display sdl    - if you need graphics you should prefer SDL display output. Much faster than GTK (which is the default).
 +
* -vnc :1          - start graphics output on VNC output, connect to hostname:1 with any VNC viewer
 +
 
 +
Qemu standard debugging options:
 +
* -d item[,...]        QEMU_LOG      e.g in_asm,out_asm enable logging of specified items (use '-d help' for a list of items)
 +
* -dfilter range[,...] QEMU_DFILTER  filter logging based on address range
 +
 
 +
HPPA specific qemu options:
 +
* -global artist.width=800
 +
* -global artist.height=600          set Artist graphic card to 800x600 pixel
 +
* -fw_cfg opt/pdc_debug,string=255    enable all firmware debug infos (1: show PDC calls, 2: show IODC calls)
 +
* -fw_cfg opt/hostid,string=334455    set the hostid to 334455 (instead of the default value 2006243326). Visible in Linux in /proc/cpuinfo, and with "uname -i" in HP/UX
 +
* -fw_cfg opt/console,string=[serial | graphics]    set default firmware output method to serial or graphics console. When selecting serial, you need to add e.g. "-serial mon:stdio" too.
 +
* -fw_cfg opt/font,string=[1-4]      select default graphics font: HP 8x16 (#1), HP 6x13 (#2), HP 10x20 (#3) or Linux 16x32 (#4)
 +
 
 +
While running you can press
 +
* ctrl-A + X          to exit qemu.
 +
* ctrl-A + C + ENTER  when started with "-serial mon:stdio", the serial port and the QEMU debug port are multiplexed and you can switch between them with this key combination.
 +
* ctrl-Alt + F        switch to fullscreen when using SDL output
 +
* execute "NMI" in qemu monitor (ctrl-A + C) to trigger HPPA TOC (transfer-of-control = Reset) button switch
 +
 
 +
== Examples on how to start the emulator ==
 +
 
 +
* qemu-system-hppa -snapshot -m 512 -device lsi,id=scsi0 -device scsi-hd,drive=drive0,bus=scsi0.0,channel=0,scsi-id=5,lun=0,bootindex=2 -drive file=hdd5.img,if=none,id=drive0 -device scsi-hd,drive=drive1,bus=scsi0.0,channel=0,scsi-id=6,lun=0,bootindex=1 -drive file=hdd2img,if=none,id=drive1 -accel tcg,thread=multi -serial mon:stdio
 +
* qemu-system-hppa -drive file=hdd.img -nographic -serial mon:stdio -accel tcg,thread=multi -smp cpus=2 -drive file=hdd2-.img -boot menu=on -boot order=h
 +
* qemu-system-hppa -boot d -m 512 -drive file=disk.img,format=qcow2 -netdev tap,id=nic1,script=/etc/qemu-ifup -cdrom /opt/iso/HPUX_10.20.iso -device tulip,netdev=nic1,mac=01:00:11:00:00:02 -serial telnet:0.0.0.0:8001,server,nowait -monitor stdio -nographic
 +
* qemu-system-hppa -drive file=../qemu-images/hdd.img -kernel vmlinux -append "root=/dev/sda5 cryptomgr.notests panic=-1" -serial mon:stdio -nographic -accel tcg,thread=multi -smp cpus=3 -netdev bridge,id=hn0,br=virbr0,helper=./qemu-bridge-helper -device tulip,netdev=hn0,id=nic1
 +
 
 +
== QEMU special emulated assembler statements ==
 +
 
 +
The emulated guest may use specific asssembler statements to control the qemu emulator:
 +
 
 +
* .word 0xfffdead0  -- immediately halt the emulator, similiar to turning the machine off
 +
* .word 0xfffdead1  -- reset machine
 +
* .word 0xfffdead2  -- restore original (pre-interrupt) values back into shadow registers, used by SeaBIOS when executing NMI instruction in qemu
 +
* or %r10,%r10,%r10 -- idle loop; wait for interrupt
 +
* or %r31,%r31,%r31 -- death loop; offline cpu (currently implemented for idle loop).
  
 
== How to build QEMU from source ==
 
== How to build QEMU from source ==
Line 36: Line 81:
 
Run "make"
 
Run "make"
  
== How to run QEMU with Debian-10 installer image ==
+
== Emulation guest targets ==
 +
 
 +
* Linux (Debian, Gentoo)
 +
* [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HP-UX HP-UX], versions 9.x up to 11.11
 +
* [https://wiki.netbsd.org/ports/hppa/ NetBSD], >= 8.0
 +
* [https://winworldpc.com/product/nextstep/3x NextSTEP]
 +
* [ftp://ftp.cirr.com/pub/hppa/mklinux/ OSF/MkLinux]
 +
 
 +
== Linux ==
 +
 
 +
* Linux kernel >= 4.14 runs best, with initial optimizations added for kernels >= 4.9.
 +
* Prefer the Tulip NIC, then e1000 over the rtl8129 card. The latter gives irq issues with Dino emulation.
 +
* If you try to boot older Linux install CDs (Debian-5, Debian-8, Debian-9), you may need to start qemu with '''"-boot menu=on"''', and then change the kernel console option to '''"console=ttyS0"''' (serial port) instead of "console=tty0" (terminal). Then switch in GUI to the "serial0" device to see console.  Alternatively start without graphical console, e.g. with '''"-nographic"'''-
 +
 
 +
=== Ready-to-run Debian Linux QEMU images for parisc ===
 +
 
 +
Download Debian hard disc image:
 +
wget http://dellerweb.de/qemu/debian-11-hdd.img.bz2
 +
or
 +
wget http://dellerweb.de/qemu/debian-10-hdd.img.bz2
 +
Unzip image:
 +
bunzip2 debian-11-hdd.img.bz2
 +
Run qemu:
 +
qemu-system-hppa -drive file=debian-11-hdd.img -nographic -serial mon:stdio -accel tcg,thread=multi -smp cpus=4
 +
Log in as '''root''', root password is "'''rootme'''"
 +
 
 +
=== How to run QEMU with Debian-10 installer image ===
  
 
* Create a virtual hard disc once:
 
* Create a virtual hard disc once:
 
  qemu-img create -f qcow2 hdd.img 50G
 
  qemu-img create -f qcow2 hdd.img 50G
 
* download a Linux install image, e.g.
 
* download a Linux install image, e.g.
** for debian: https://cdimage.debian.org/cdimage/ports/10.0/hppa/iso-cd/debian-10.0-hppa-NETINST-1.iso
+
** for debian: http://backup.parisc-linux.org/debian-cd/debian-11.0.0-hppa-NETINST-1.iso
 
** for gentoo: http://distfiles.gentoo.org/releases/hppa/autobuilds/
 
** for gentoo: http://distfiles.gentoo.org/releases/hppa/autobuilds/
 
* Start emulator with the installer image once:
 
* Start emulator with the installer image once:
  ./hppa-softmmu/qemu-system-hppa -drive file=hdd.img -drive file=debian-10.0-hppa-NETINST-1.iso,media=cdrom -boot order=d -nographic -serial mon:stdio  
+
  qemu-system-hppa -drive file=hdd.img -drive file=debian-11.0.0-hppa-NETINST-1.iso,media=cdrom -boot order=d -accel tcg,thread=multi -smp cpus=4 -serial mon:stdio -nographic
 
* Choose typical installation options, the defaults are OK.
 
* Choose typical installation options, the defaults are OK.
* Either skip the step "Configure the Package manager", or configure the mirror as with hostname "ftp.ports.debian.org", and directory "/debian-ports"
 
 
* Shut down virtual machine after installation
 
* Shut down virtual machine after installation
  
 
* Start emulator with installed operating system any time:
 
* Start emulator with installed operating system any time:
  ./hppa-softmmu/qemu-system-hppa -drive file=hdd.img -nographic -serial mon:stdio -accel tcg,thread=multi -smp cpus=2
+
  qemu-system-hppa -drive file=hdd.img -nographic -serial mon:stdio -accel tcg,thread=multi -smp cpus=4
  
* Edit the sources.list (/etc/apt/sources.list) file:
+
=== Gentoo Linux ===
deb http://ftp.ports.debian.org/debian-ports unstable main
+
deb [arch=all] http://ftp.debian.org/debian unstable main
+
deb-src http://ftp.debian.org/debian unstable main
+
  
== Some QEMU notes ==
+
* From https://www.gentoo.org/downloads/#hppa download the Minimal installation CD or the hppa32 netboot image (lif file)
 +
* Start qemu with "-cdrom <isofile>", or the lif file with "-drive file=<lif-file>", e.g.
 +
qemu-system-hppa -drive file=gentoo-2020-hppa-netboot.lif -accel tcg,thread=multi -smp cpus=2 -nographic
  
Prefer the e1000 driver over the rtl8129 card. The latter gives irq issues with Dino emulation.
+
== HP-UX ==
  
Possible qemu options:
+
* '''NOTE''': Please '''keep the default screen resolution of 1280x1024 pixels'''. HP-UX may crash if you increase the width, or in graphical environment (with dtwm) the mouse won't be able to reach any line >= 1146 pxels.
* -accel tcg,thread=multi  - always use this to enable parallel tcg (otherwise all guest CPUs run on one host CPU)
+
* You probably won't be able to boot an original HP-UX installed hard disc image coming from a physical machine other than a B160L. The reason is, that the HP-UX kernel from the other machine has drivers built-in and won't recognize the SCSI and network in the emulated virtual machine.
* -smp cpus=4      - define number of CPUs in the guest (maximum CPUs: 32)
+
* LASI NIC emulation and NCR 710 emulation is needed in order to be able to boot older HP-UX releases.
* -boot menu=on   - Firmware: enable interactive mode (boot prompt)
+
* [https://astr0baby.wordpress.com/2019/04/28/running-hp-ux-11-11-on-qemu-system-hp Astrobaby wrote about his test results.]
* -boot order=c    - Firmware: Boot from hard disc
+
* Hints:
* -boot order=d    - Firmware: Boot from CD/DVD
+
** The "INTERRUPT KEY" mentioned sometimes by HP-UX can be emulated with the "Ctrl-\" key combination
* -serial mon:stdio  use serial console
+
** In case you lost the HP-UX root password, boot at ISL 'hpux -is' and then give a new password with running "passwd" (you need to use the "-boot menu=on" qemu option)
* -nographic      - no graphics device
+
** When booting HP-UX may show strange characters instead of brackets - just delete the file /etc/kbdlang, reboot and choose PS2_DIN_US language
* -device VGA      - provide PCI VGA graphic card
+
* How to start X11, CDE or dtwm
 +
** CDE Login: init 4
 +
** CDE desktop: start "xinit", then "/usr/dt/bin/dtsession"
 +
** X11: startx
 +
** dtwm Window Manager: start "xinit", then run "/usr/dt/bin/dtwm".
 +
* How to run full filesystem check: fsck -F vxfs -y -o full
 +
* File downloads see https://archive.org/download/hpunix/
  
== Tips and Tricks when running an emulation ==
+
HP-UX 9 is the first HP-UX release which does support the PA-RISC CPU.
 +
HP-UX 9.05 fails when booting the install CD: (reported 2021/05/18)
 +
    Stored message buffer up to panic:
 +
        Floating point coprocessor configured and enabled.
 +
        No BTLB entries found for processor 0
 +
        Unsupported module type 0x7 found
 +
 +
        System Panic:
 +
            B2352A HP-UX (A.09.05) #2: Tue Oct 18 15:46:14 PDT 1994
 +
        panic: (display==0xbc00, flags==0x0) Unable to initialize msus structure
 +
        PC-Offset Stack Trace (read across, most recent is 1st):
 +
            0x000ec6f8  0x000d7e3c  0x00081e5c  0x000254c0
 +
        End Of Stack
 +
 +
        dumping 0 bytes to dev 0xffffffff, offset 0 ...
 +
        Dump failed, returning 5.
  
* The "INTERRUPT KEY" mentioned sometimes by HP-UX can be emulated with the "Ctrl-\" key combination
+
according to [https://archive.org/stream/bitsavers_hp9000hpuxingHPBASICUX6.2Aug91_5917615/E2040-90001_Using_HP_BASIC_UX_6.2_Aug91_djvu.txt this document] "msus" means "mass storage unit specifier" and "msvs" means "mass storage volume specifier" while the msvs is sometimes called an "msus". I assume HP-UX 9.05 doesn't know how to handle the emulated SCSI PCI card and thus can't access the disc. Remember, a B160L is different to a HP700, and a HP700 had a built-in LASI700 (NCR700) SCSI controller.
* In case you lost the HP-UX root password, boot at ISL 'hpux -is' and then give a new password with running "passwd".
+
  
== Possible emulation guest targets ==
+
== NetBSD ==
  
* [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HP-UX HP-UX], versions 9.x up to 11.11
+
Relevant NetBSD/hppa links:
* Linux (Debian, Gentoo), latest releases preferred
+
* Daily install images: https://nycdn.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD-daily/netbsd-9/latest/images/
* [https://wiki.netbsd.org/ports/hppa/ NetBSD]
+
* Install images: https://cdn.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD/install-images/
* [https://winworldpc.com/product/nextstep/3x NextSTEP]
+
* Generic NetBSD/hppa info: http://wiki.netbsd.org/ports/hppa/
 +
* How to install NetBSD with qemu: http://wiki.netbsd.org/ports/hppa/qemu_hppa/
 +
 
 +
Please note that at least NetBSD-8 required.
 +
NetBSD-7 doesn't work, since the NetBSD kernel trap handler code complains about the stack pointer in the trap frame. Reported error is:
 +
insanity: 'tf->tf_sp >= minsp && tf->tf_sp < maxsp' at trap:556 type 0xf tf 0xe00040 lwp 0xe38140 sp 0xa0 pc 0x200240
 +
 
 +
(info by Nick Hudson <nick.hudson@gmx.co.uk>)
 +
 
 +
== OSF/MkLinux ==
 +
 
 +
Download at ftp://ftp.cirr.com/pub/hppa/mklinux/
 +
The file root_ext2_g.dd.bin.gz doesn't cleanly decompress.. so I did a gzip -dc into root_ext2_g.dd.bin.
 +
 
 +
MkLinux sources: https://github.com/slp/osfmk-mklinux
 +
 
 +
qemu-system-hppa -boot c -drive if=scsi,bus=0,index=3,file=root_ext2_g.dd.bin,format=raw \
 +
        -serial mon:stdio -nographic -m 128
 +
 
 +
It boots, but fails during device detection because Qemu currently emulates a B160, while MkLinux expects a HP700. So it fails to see the LASI chip below the GSC bridge.
 +
NVM bootdata Bad Checksum (0)
 +
OSF Mach boot
 +
: /mach
 +
text (0x95618) at 0x11000
 +
data (0x48594) at 0xa8000
 +
Mach 3.0 VERSION(PMK1.1): cb <pmk1_1>; Wed Nov 26 17:20:37 MET 1997; mach_kernel/PRODUCTION (cameleon)
 +
HP9000/
 +
unknown machine type 0x502
 +
good luck :-)
 +
, 0K Icache, 0K Dcache, 256 entry shared TLB)
 +
Warning: unsupported module at ffc00000 (type:7 svers:0 hvers:50)
 +
Stack Trace (depth=1):
 +
      0x00084d68
 +
End of Stack
 +
 
 +
(info by Jason Stevens <neozeed@gmail.com>)
  
 
== Future QEMU work ==
 
== Future QEMU work ==
  
 +
Possible enhancements:
 +
* Add Dino/Lasi serial port
 +
* Harmony sound card in Lasi
 
* Does HP-UX has some kind of "sleep" assembler instruction in it's idle loop which can be used to lower qemu power consumption?
 
* Does HP-UX has some kind of "sleep" assembler instruction in it's idle loop which can be used to lower qemu power consumption?
 
* Fix virtio-drivers in SeaBIOS (endianess-bugs, because SeaBIOS is originally only Little-endian from x86)
 
* Fix virtio-drivers in SeaBIOS (endianess-bugs, because SeaBIOS is originally only Little-endian from x86)
* Emulate Lasi (i82596) and Tulip (DEC 21x40) network cards in Qemu
+
* More correct emulation of B160L in Qemu
* Artist graphics emulation in Qemu
+
* Emulate a 712 and/or j5000/c3000 machine
* STI text emulation in SeaBIOS with VGA
+
* Emulate built-in LASI SCI controller instead of PCI SCSI add-on card
* More correct emulation of B160L in Qemu, e.g. seriell ports, PS/2 keyboard & mouse, graphics card
+
 
* Elroy PCI emulation, then emulate e.g. a C3000?
 
* Elroy PCI emulation, then emulate e.g. a C3000?
 
* PA2.0/64bit (low prio)
 
* PA2.0/64bit (low prio)
* ...
+
 
* '''Push SeaBIOS changes upstream!!'''
+
== List of QEmu important patches ==
 +
* [https://git.qemu.org/?p=qemu.git;a=commit;h=b1af755c33bf0d690553a5ccd93689dfd15a98e8 target/hppa: Allow, but diagnose, LDCW aligned only mod 4] - prevents crash with unaligned LDCW instruction. Missing in qemu v4.2.1, see: https://bugs.debian.org/cgi-bin/bugreport.cgi?bug=964805
 +
* [https://lists.gnu.org/archive/html/qemu-devel/2020-07/msg05904.html target/hppa: Free some temps in do_sub] - fixes https://bugs.launchpad.net/qemu/+bug/1880287
 +
* [https://lists.nongnu.org/archive/html/qemu-devel/2021-12/msg04501.html target/hppa: Fix atomic_store_3 for STBY]
 +
 
 +
== Screenshots ==
 +
 
 +
=== HP-UX CDE graphical Login ===
 +
[[File:hpux-10-cde-login.png|660 px]]
 +
 
 +
=== HP-UX CDE ===
 +
[[File:hpux-10-cde1.png|660 px]]
 +
 
 +
=== HP-UX 10.20 with VUE ===
 +
[[File:Hpux-10-vue.png|660 px]]

Latest revision as of 06:48, 18 May 2022

Contents

[edit] QEMU support status regarding hppa/parisc

Since QEMU version 2.12 (April 2018), qemu fully supports 32-bit hppa user emulation (hppa-linux-user) and 32-bit hppa system emulation (qemu-system-hppa). All necessary changes have been merged into the upstream qemu git tree.

PA-RISC machines need a firmware ("PDC" = Processor Dependend Code). Qemu comes with a precompiled PDC firmware for hppa (pc-bios/hppa-firmware.img), which is based on a fork of SeaBIOS .

The emulated machine is a HP B160L desktop machine, with one or more 32-bit PA7100LC CPUs.

The QEMU emulation is able to run Linux and HP-UX.

QEMU on parisc has been developed by:

  • Richard Henderson: QEMU CPU emulation (32-bit only), QEMU hardware divers
  • Helge Deller: QEMU hardware drivers, SeaBIOS PDC firmware
  • Sven Schnelle: Lots of fixes all over QEMU and SeaBIOS (SCSI, CPU emulation fixes, SeaBIOS PDC firmware)

[edit] QEMU status overview

Qemu versions v6.2.0, v6.1.1 and v6.0.1 run stable, but miss this patch:

[edit] QEMU runtime options

Standard qemu options:

  • -m 1G - tell machine to have 1G of memory
  • -accel tcg,thread=multi - always use this to enable parallel tcg (otherwise all guest CPUs run on one host CPU)
  • -smp cpus=4 - define number of CPUs in the guest (maximum CPUs: 32)
  • -boot menu=on - Firmware: enable interactive mode (same as "BOOT PRI IPL")
  • -boot order=c - Firmware: Boot from first hard disc
  • -boot order=d - Firmware: Boot from first CD/DVD
  • -boot order=g-m - Firmware: Boot from SCSI ID0 ("g"), SCSI ID1 ("h"), ... SCSI ID7 ("m")
  • -serial mon:stdio - multiplex serial console to stdout
  • -nographic - disable artist graphic card emulation, so no graphics output
  • -display sdl - if you need graphics you should prefer SDL display output. Much faster than GTK (which is the default).
  • -vnc :1 - start graphics output on VNC output, connect to hostname:1 with any VNC viewer

Qemu standard debugging options:

  • -d item[,...] QEMU_LOG e.g in_asm,out_asm enable logging of specified items (use '-d help' for a list of items)
  • -dfilter range[,...] QEMU_DFILTER filter logging based on address range

HPPA specific qemu options:

  • -global artist.width=800
  • -global artist.height=600 set Artist graphic card to 800x600 pixel
  • -fw_cfg opt/pdc_debug,string=255 enable all firmware debug infos (1: show PDC calls, 2: show IODC calls)
  • -fw_cfg opt/hostid,string=334455 set the hostid to 334455 (instead of the default value 2006243326). Visible in Linux in /proc/cpuinfo, and with "uname -i" in HP/UX
  • -fw_cfg opt/console,string=[serial | graphics] set default firmware output method to serial or graphics console. When selecting serial, you need to add e.g. "-serial mon:stdio" too.
  • -fw_cfg opt/font,string=[1-4] select default graphics font: HP 8x16 (#1), HP 6x13 (#2), HP 10x20 (#3) or Linux 16x32 (#4)

While running you can press

  • ctrl-A + X to exit qemu.
  • ctrl-A + C + ENTER when started with "-serial mon:stdio", the serial port and the QEMU debug port are multiplexed and you can switch between them with this key combination.
  • ctrl-Alt + F switch to fullscreen when using SDL output
  • execute "NMI" in qemu monitor (ctrl-A + C) to trigger HPPA TOC (transfer-of-control = Reset) button switch

[edit] Examples on how to start the emulator

  • qemu-system-hppa -snapshot -m 512 -device lsi,id=scsi0 -device scsi-hd,drive=drive0,bus=scsi0.0,channel=0,scsi-id=5,lun=0,bootindex=2 -drive file=hdd5.img,if=none,id=drive0 -device scsi-hd,drive=drive1,bus=scsi0.0,channel=0,scsi-id=6,lun=0,bootindex=1 -drive file=hdd2img,if=none,id=drive1 -accel tcg,thread=multi -serial mon:stdio
  • qemu-system-hppa -drive file=hdd.img -nographic -serial mon:stdio -accel tcg,thread=multi -smp cpus=2 -drive file=hdd2-.img -boot menu=on -boot order=h
  • qemu-system-hppa -boot d -m 512 -drive file=disk.img,format=qcow2 -netdev tap,id=nic1,script=/etc/qemu-ifup -cdrom /opt/iso/HPUX_10.20.iso -device tulip,netdev=nic1,mac=01:00:11:00:00:02 -serial telnet:0.0.0.0:8001,server,nowait -monitor stdio -nographic
  • qemu-system-hppa -drive file=../qemu-images/hdd.img -kernel vmlinux -append "root=/dev/sda5 cryptomgr.notests panic=-1" -serial mon:stdio -nographic -accel tcg,thread=multi -smp cpus=3 -netdev bridge,id=hn0,br=virbr0,helper=./qemu-bridge-helper -device tulip,netdev=hn0,id=nic1

[edit] QEMU special emulated assembler statements

The emulated guest may use specific asssembler statements to control the qemu emulator:

  • .word 0xfffdead0 -- immediately halt the emulator, similiar to turning the machine off
  • .word 0xfffdead1 -- reset machine
  • .word 0xfffdead2 -- restore original (pre-interrupt) values back into shadow registers, used by SeaBIOS when executing NMI instruction in qemu
  • or %r10,%r10,%r10 -- idle loop; wait for interrupt
  • or %r31,%r31,%r31 -- death loop; offline cpu (currently implemented for idle loop).

[edit] How to build QEMU from source

Check out the qemu git tree

Run configure, e.g.

  • (for system emulation) ./configure --target-list=hppa-softmmu --enable-numa
  • (for user emulation) ./configure --target-list=hppa-linux-user --disable-stack-protector --prefix=/home/qemu-hppa/chroot-unstable --interp-prefix=/home/qemu-hppa/chroot-unstable --static

Run "make"

[edit] Emulation guest targets

[edit] Linux

  • Linux kernel >= 4.14 runs best, with initial optimizations added for kernels >= 4.9.
  • Prefer the Tulip NIC, then e1000 over the rtl8129 card. The latter gives irq issues with Dino emulation.
  • If you try to boot older Linux install CDs (Debian-5, Debian-8, Debian-9), you may need to start qemu with "-boot menu=on", and then change the kernel console option to "console=ttyS0" (serial port) instead of "console=tty0" (terminal). Then switch in GUI to the "serial0" device to see console. Alternatively start without graphical console, e.g. with "-nographic"-

[edit] Ready-to-run Debian Linux QEMU images for parisc

Download Debian hard disc image:

wget http://dellerweb.de/qemu/debian-11-hdd.img.bz2

or

wget http://dellerweb.de/qemu/debian-10-hdd.img.bz2

Unzip image:

bunzip2 debian-11-hdd.img.bz2

Run qemu:

qemu-system-hppa -drive file=debian-11-hdd.img -nographic -serial mon:stdio -accel tcg,thread=multi -smp cpus=4 

Log in as root, root password is "rootme"

[edit] How to run QEMU with Debian-10 installer image

  • Create a virtual hard disc once:
qemu-img create -f qcow2 hdd.img 50G
qemu-system-hppa -drive file=hdd.img -drive file=debian-11.0.0-hppa-NETINST-1.iso,media=cdrom -boot order=d -accel tcg,thread=multi -smp cpus=4 -serial mon:stdio -nographic
  • Choose typical installation options, the defaults are OK.
  • Shut down virtual machine after installation
  • Start emulator with installed operating system any time:
qemu-system-hppa -drive file=hdd.img -nographic -serial mon:stdio -accel tcg,thread=multi -smp cpus=4

[edit] Gentoo Linux

  • From https://www.gentoo.org/downloads/#hppa download the Minimal installation CD or the hppa32 netboot image (lif file)
  • Start qemu with "-cdrom <isofile>", or the lif file with "-drive file=<lif-file>", e.g.
qemu-system-hppa -drive file=gentoo-2020-hppa-netboot.lif -accel tcg,thread=multi -smp cpus=2 -nographic

[edit] HP-UX

  • NOTE: Please keep the default screen resolution of 1280x1024 pixels. HP-UX may crash if you increase the width, or in graphical environment (with dtwm) the mouse won't be able to reach any line >= 1146 pxels.
  • You probably won't be able to boot an original HP-UX installed hard disc image coming from a physical machine other than a B160L. The reason is, that the HP-UX kernel from the other machine has drivers built-in and won't recognize the SCSI and network in the emulated virtual machine.
  • LASI NIC emulation and NCR 710 emulation is needed in order to be able to boot older HP-UX releases.
  • Astrobaby wrote about his test results.
  • Hints:
    • The "INTERRUPT KEY" mentioned sometimes by HP-UX can be emulated with the "Ctrl-\" key combination
    • In case you lost the HP-UX root password, boot at ISL 'hpux -is' and then give a new password with running "passwd" (you need to use the "-boot menu=on" qemu option)
    • When booting HP-UX may show strange characters instead of brackets - just delete the file /etc/kbdlang, reboot and choose PS2_DIN_US language
  • How to start X11, CDE or dtwm
    • CDE Login: init 4
    • CDE desktop: start "xinit", then "/usr/dt/bin/dtsession"
    • X11: startx
    • dtwm Window Manager: start "xinit", then run "/usr/dt/bin/dtwm".
  • How to run full filesystem check: fsck -F vxfs -y -o full
  • File downloads see https://archive.org/download/hpunix/

HP-UX 9 is the first HP-UX release which does support the PA-RISC CPU. HP-UX 9.05 fails when booting the install CD: (reported 2021/05/18)

    Stored message buffer up to panic:
        Floating point coprocessor configured and enabled.
        No BTLB entries found for processor 0
        Unsupported module type 0x7 found

        System Panic:
           B2352A HP-UX (A.09.05) #2: Tue Oct 18 15:46:14 PDT 1994
        panic: (display==0xbc00, flags==0x0) Unable to initialize msus structure
        PC-Offset Stack Trace (read across, most recent is 1st):
           0x000ec6f8  0x000d7e3c  0x00081e5c  0x000254c0
        End Of Stack

        dumping 0 bytes to dev 0xffffffff, offset 0 ...
        Dump failed, returning 5.

according to this document "msus" means "mass storage unit specifier" and "msvs" means "mass storage volume specifier" while the msvs is sometimes called an "msus". I assume HP-UX 9.05 doesn't know how to handle the emulated SCSI PCI card and thus can't access the disc. Remember, a B160L is different to a HP700, and a HP700 had a built-in LASI700 (NCR700) SCSI controller.

[edit] NetBSD

Relevant NetBSD/hppa links:

Please note that at least NetBSD-8 required. NetBSD-7 doesn't work, since the NetBSD kernel trap handler code complains about the stack pointer in the trap frame. Reported error is:

insanity: 'tf->tf_sp >= minsp && tf->tf_sp < maxsp' at trap:556 type 0xf tf 0xe00040 lwp 0xe38140 sp 0xa0 pc 0x200240

(info by Nick Hudson <nick.hudson@gmx.co.uk>)

[edit] OSF/MkLinux

Download at ftp://ftp.cirr.com/pub/hppa/mklinux/ The file root_ext2_g.dd.bin.gz doesn't cleanly decompress.. so I did a gzip -dc into root_ext2_g.dd.bin.

MkLinux sources: https://github.com/slp/osfmk-mklinux

qemu-system-hppa -boot c -drive if=scsi,bus=0,index=3,file=root_ext2_g.dd.bin,format=raw \
       -serial mon:stdio -nographic -m 128 

It boots, but fails during device detection because Qemu currently emulates a B160, while MkLinux expects a HP700. So it fails to see the LASI chip below the GSC bridge.

NVM bootdata Bad Checksum (0)
OSF Mach boot
: /mach
text (0x95618) at 0x11000
data (0x48594) at 0xa8000
Mach 3.0 VERSION(PMK1.1): cb <pmk1_1>; Wed Nov 26 17:20:37 MET 1997; mach_kernel/PRODUCTION (cameleon)
HP9000/
unknown machine type 0x502
good luck :-)
, 0K Icache, 0K Dcache, 256 entry shared TLB)
Warning: unsupported module at ffc00000 (type:7 svers:0 hvers:50)
Stack Trace (depth=1):
     0x00084d68
End of Stack 

(info by Jason Stevens <neozeed@gmail.com>)

[edit] Future QEMU work

Possible enhancements:

  • Add Dino/Lasi serial port
  • Harmony sound card in Lasi
  • Does HP-UX has some kind of "sleep" assembler instruction in it's idle loop which can be used to lower qemu power consumption?
  • Fix virtio-drivers in SeaBIOS (endianess-bugs, because SeaBIOS is originally only Little-endian from x86)
  • More correct emulation of B160L in Qemu
  • Emulate a 712 and/or j5000/c3000 machine
  • Emulate built-in LASI SCI controller instead of PCI SCSI add-on card
  • Elroy PCI emulation, then emulate e.g. a C3000?
  • PA2.0/64bit (low prio)

[edit] List of QEmu important patches

[edit] Screenshots

[edit] HP-UX CDE graphical Login

Hpux-10-cde-login.png

[edit] HP-UX CDE

Hpux-10-cde1.png

[edit] HP-UX 10.20 with VUE

Hpux-10-vue.png

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