Qemu

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== QEMU support status regarding hppa/parisc ==
 
== QEMU support status regarding hppa/parisc ==
  
Starting with QEMU version 2.12 (April 2018), qemu fully supports 32-bit hppa user emulation (hppa-linux-user) and 32-bit hppa system emulation (qemu-system-hppa).
+
Since QEMU version 2.12 (April 2018), qemu fully supports 32-bit hppa user emulation (hppa-linux-user) and 32-bit hppa system emulation (qemu-system-hppa).
 
All necessary changes have been merged into the [https://git.qemu.org/?p=qemu.git;a=summary upstream qemu git tree].
 
All necessary changes have been merged into the [https://git.qemu.org/?p=qemu.git;a=summary upstream qemu git tree].
  
 
PA-RISC machines need a firmware ("PDC" = Processor Dependend Code).
 
PA-RISC machines need a firmware ("PDC" = Processor Dependend Code).
Qemu includes a precompiled PDC firmware for hppa ([https://git.qemu.org/?p=qemu.git;a=blob;f=pc-bios/hppa-firmware.img;h=86930974b9e12bec214fb464eee443a0d844e6ff;hb=HEAD pc-bios/hppa-firmware.img]), which is based on a [https://github.com/hdeller/seabios-hppa/commits/parisc_firmware fork of SeaBIOS ].
+
Qemu comes with a precompiled PDC firmware for hppa ([https://git.qemu.org/?p=qemu.git;a=blob;f=pc-bios/hppa-firmware.img;h=86930974b9e12bec214fb464eee443a0d844e6ff;hb=HEAD pc-bios/hppa-firmware.img]), which is based on a [https://github.com/hdeller/seabios-hppa/commits/parisc_firmware fork of SeaBIOS ].
  
 
The emulated machine is a [https://www.openpa.net/systems/hp-visualize_b132l_b160l_b180l.html HP B160L desktop machine], with one or more 32-bit PA7100LC CPUs.
 
The emulated machine is a [https://www.openpa.net/systems/hp-visualize_b132l_b160l_b180l.html HP B160L desktop machine], with one or more 32-bit PA7100LC CPUs.
  
The QEMU emulation is able to run Linux and HP-UX. HP-UX support still needs improvement which is being worked on.
+
The QEMU emulation is able to run Linux and HP-UX.
  
QEMU on parisc has been made available by:
+
QEMU on parisc has been developed by:
 
* [mailto:rth@twiddle.net Richard Henderson]: QEMU CPU emulation (32-bit only), QEMU hardware divers
 
* [mailto:rth@twiddle.net Richard Henderson]: QEMU CPU emulation (32-bit only), QEMU hardware divers
 
* [mailto:deller@gmx.de Helge Deller]: QEMU hardware drivers, SeaBIOS PDC firmware
 
* [mailto:deller@gmx.de Helge Deller]: QEMU hardware drivers, SeaBIOS PDC firmware
 
* [mailto:svens@stackframe.org Sven Schnelle]: Lots of fixes all over QEMU and SeaBIOS (SCSI, CPU emulation fixes, SeaBIOS PDC firmware)
 
* [mailto:svens@stackframe.org Sven Schnelle]: Lots of fixes all over QEMU and SeaBIOS (SCSI, CPU emulation fixes, SeaBIOS PDC firmware)
  
== Ready-to-run QEMU image for parisc ==
+
== QEMU runtime options ==
  
Download Debian hard disc image:
+
Possible qemu options:
  wget http://backup.parisc-linux.org/qemu/debian-10-hdd-img.tar.bz2
+
* -accel tcg,thread=multi - always use this to enable parallel tcg (otherwise all guest CPUs run on one host CPU)
Unzip image:  
+
* -smp cpus=4      - define number of CPUs in the guest (maximum CPUs: 32)
tar xvfj debian-10-hdd-img.tar.bz2
+
* -boot menu=on    - Firmware: enable interactive mode (boot prompt)
Run qemu:
+
* -boot order=c    - Firmware: Boot from hard disc
./hppa-softmmu/qemu-system-hppa -drive file=debian-10-hdd.img -nographic -serial mon:stdio -accel tcg,thread=multi -smp cpus=4
+
* -boot order=d    - Firmware: Boot from CD/DVD
Log in as '''root''', root password is "'''rootme'''"
+
* -serial mon:stdio   use serial console
 +
* -nographic      - disable artist graphic card emulation, so no graphics output
 +
* -fw_cfg pdc_debug,string=255, enable all firmware debug infos
  
 
== How to build QEMU from source ==
 
== How to build QEMU from source ==
Line 36: Line 38:
 
Run "make"
 
Run "make"
  
== How to run QEMU with Debian-10 installer image ==
+
== Emulation guest targets ==
 +
 
 +
* Linux (Debian, Gentoo)
 +
* [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HP-UX HP-UX], versions 9.x up to 11.11
 +
* [https://wiki.netbsd.org/ports/hppa/ NetBSD], >= 8.0
 +
* [https://winworldpc.com/product/nextstep/3x NextSTEP]
 +
* [ftp://ftp.cirr.com/pub/hppa/mklinux/ OSF/MkLinux]
 +
 
 +
== Linux ==
 +
 
 +
* Linux kernel >= 4.14 runs best, with initial optimizations added for kernels >= 4.9.
 +
* Prefer the Tulip NIC, then e1000 over the rtl8129 card. The latter gives irq issues with Dino emulation.
 +
 
 +
=== Debian Linux QEMU image for parisc ===
 +
 
 +
Download Debian hard disc image:
 +
wget http://backup.parisc-linux.org/qemu/debian-10-hdd-img.tar.bz2
 +
Unzip image:
 +
tar xvfj debian-10-hdd-img.tar.bz2
 +
Run qemu:
 +
./hppa-softmmu/qemu-system-hppa -drive file=debian-10-hdd.img -nographic -serial mon:stdio -accel tcg,thread=multi -smp cpus=4
 +
Log in as '''root''', root password is "'''rootme'''"
 +
 
 +
=== How to run QEMU with Debian-10 installer image ===
  
 
* Create a virtual hard disc once:
 
* Create a virtual hard disc once:
Line 57: Line 82:
 
  deb-src http://ftp.debian.org/debian unstable main
 
  deb-src http://ftp.debian.org/debian unstable main
  
== Some QEMU notes ==
 
  
Prefer the e1000 driver over the rtl8129 card. The latter gives irq issues with Dino emulation.
+
== HP-UX ==
  
Possible qemu options:
+
* Still LASI NIC emulation and NCR 710 Emulation needed in order to be able to boot older HP-UX releases.
* -accel tcg,thread=multi  - always use this to enable parallel tcg (otherwise all guest CPUs run on one host CPU)
+
* [https://astr0baby.wordpress.com/2019/04/28/running-hp-ux-11-11-on-qemu-system-hp Astrobaby wrote about his test results.]
* -smp cpus=4      - define number of CPUs in the guest (maximum CPUs: 32)
+
* -boot menu=on    - Firmware: enable interactive mode (boot prompt)
+
* -boot order=c    - Firmware: Boot from hard disc
+
* -boot order=d    - Firmware: Boot from CD/DVD
+
* -serial mon:stdio  use serial console
+
* -nographic      - no graphics device
+
* -device VGA      - provide PCI VGA graphic card
+
* -fw_cfg pdc_debug,string=255, enable all firmware debug infos
+
 
+
== Tips and Tricks when running an emulation ==
+
 
+
* Linux kernel >= 4.14 runs best. Initial Linux kernel optimizations were added to kernel >= 4.9.
+
 
* The "INTERRUPT KEY" mentioned sometimes by HP-UX can be emulated with the "Ctrl-\" key combination
 
* The "INTERRUPT KEY" mentioned sometimes by HP-UX can be emulated with the "Ctrl-\" key combination
 
* In case you lost the HP-UX root password, boot at ISL 'hpux -is' and then give a new password with running "passwd".
 
* In case you lost the HP-UX root password, boot at ISL 'hpux -is' and then give a new password with running "passwd".
 
+
* How to test dtwm Windows Manager: start "xinit", then run "/usr/dt/bin/dtwm".
== qemu important patches ==
+
* [https://git.qemu.org/?p=qemu.git;a=commit;h=b1af755c33bf0d690553a5ccd93689dfd15a98e8 target/hppa: Allow, but diagnose, LDCW aligned only mod 4] - prevents crash with unaligned LDCW instruction. Missing in qemu v4.2.1, see: https://bugs.debian.org/cgi-bin/bugreport.cgi?bug=964805
+
* [https://lists.gnu.org/archive/html/qemu-devel/2020-07/msg05904.html target/hppa: Free some temps in do_sub] - fixes https://bugs.launchpad.net/qemu/+bug/1880287
+
 
+
 
+
== Possible emulation guest targets ==
+
 
+
* [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HP-UX HP-UX], versions 9.x up to 11.11
+
* Linux (Debian, Gentoo), Kernel >= v4.14
+
* [https://wiki.netbsd.org/ports/hppa/ NetBSD]
+
** at least NetBSD-8 required.
+
** NetBSD-7 doesn't work, since the trap handler code is complaining about the stack pointer it sees in the trap frame. 0xa0 for the stack pointer isn't good (analyzed with Nick Hudson <nick.hudson@gmx.co.uk>):
+
*** insanity: 'tf->tf_sp >= minsp && tf->tf_sp < maxsp' at trap:556 type 0xf tf 0xe00040 lwp 0xe38140 sp 0xa0 pc 0x200240
+
* [https://winworldpc.com/product/nextstep/3x NextSTEP]
+
* [ftp://ftp.cirr.com/pub/hppa/mklinux/ OSF/MkLinux]
+
 
+
== HP-UX ==
+
 
+
Still LASI NIC emulation and NCR 710 Emulation needed in order to be able to boot older HP-UX releases.
+
 
+
[https://astr0baby.wordpress.com/2019/04/28/running-hp-ux-11-11-on-qemu-system-hp Astrobaby wrote about his test results.]
+
 
+
How to test dtwm Windows Manager:
+
start "xinit", then run "/usr/dt/bin/dtwm".
+
  
 
== NetBSD ==
 
== NetBSD ==
Line 116: Line 104:
 
         -nographic \
 
         -nographic \
 
         -serial telnet::55555,server
 
         -serial telnet::55555,server
 +
 +
* at least NetBSD-8 required.
 +
* NetBSD-7 doesn't work, since the trap handler code is complaining about the stack pointer it sees in the trap frame. 0xa0 for the stack pointer isn't good (analyzed with Nick Hudson <nick.hudson@gmx.co.uk>):
 +
** insanity: 'tf->tf_sp >= minsp && tf->tf_sp < maxsp' at trap:556 type 0xf tf 0xe00040 lwp 0xe38140 sp 0xa0 pc 0x200240
  
 
(info by Nick Hudson <nick.hudson@gmx.co.uk>)
 
(info by Nick Hudson <nick.hudson@gmx.co.uk>)
Line 148: Line 140:
  
 
== Future QEMU work ==
 
== Future QEMU work ==
 
Upstream merging currently beeing worked on (September 2019):
 
* Emulate Lasi
 
* Emulate Lasi NIC (Intel Apricot i82596)
 
* Artist graphics emulation
 
* STI text console emulation for Linux and HP-UX
 
* Add PS/2 mouse and keyboard ports
 
  
 
Still need to do:
 
Still need to do:
Line 161: Line 146:
 
* Does HP-UX has some kind of "sleep" assembler instruction in it's idle loop which can be used to lower qemu power consumption?
 
* Does HP-UX has some kind of "sleep" assembler instruction in it's idle loop which can be used to lower qemu power consumption?
 
* Fix virtio-drivers in SeaBIOS (endianess-bugs, because SeaBIOS is originally only Little-endian from x86)
 
* Fix virtio-drivers in SeaBIOS (endianess-bugs, because SeaBIOS is originally only Little-endian from x86)
* Emulate Tulip (DEC 21x40) network cards in Qemu
 
 
* More correct emulation of B160L in Qemu
 
* More correct emulation of B160L in Qemu
 
* Emulate a 712 and/or j5000/c3000 machine
 
* Emulate a 712 and/or j5000/c3000 machine
Line 169: Line 153:
 
* ...
 
* ...
 
* '''Push SeaBIOS changes upstream!!'''
 
* '''Push SeaBIOS changes upstream!!'''
 +
 +
== List of QEmu important patches ==
 +
* [https://git.qemu.org/?p=qemu.git;a=commit;h=b1af755c33bf0d690553a5ccd93689dfd15a98e8 target/hppa: Allow, but diagnose, LDCW aligned only mod 4] - prevents crash with unaligned LDCW instruction. Missing in qemu v4.2.1, see: https://bugs.debian.org/cgi-bin/bugreport.cgi?bug=964805
 +
* [https://lists.gnu.org/archive/html/qemu-devel/2020-07/msg05904.html target/hppa: Free some temps in do_sub] - fixes https://bugs.launchpad.net/qemu/+bug/1880287
  
 
== Screenshots ==
 
== Screenshots ==

Revision as of 08:07, 30 August 2020

Contents

QEMU support status regarding hppa/parisc

Since QEMU version 2.12 (April 2018), qemu fully supports 32-bit hppa user emulation (hppa-linux-user) and 32-bit hppa system emulation (qemu-system-hppa). All necessary changes have been merged into the upstream qemu git tree.

PA-RISC machines need a firmware ("PDC" = Processor Dependend Code). Qemu comes with a precompiled PDC firmware for hppa (pc-bios/hppa-firmware.img), which is based on a fork of SeaBIOS .

The emulated machine is a HP B160L desktop machine, with one or more 32-bit PA7100LC CPUs.

The QEMU emulation is able to run Linux and HP-UX.

QEMU on parisc has been developed by:

  • Richard Henderson: QEMU CPU emulation (32-bit only), QEMU hardware divers
  • Helge Deller: QEMU hardware drivers, SeaBIOS PDC firmware
  • Sven Schnelle: Lots of fixes all over QEMU and SeaBIOS (SCSI, CPU emulation fixes, SeaBIOS PDC firmware)

QEMU runtime options

Possible qemu options:

  • -accel tcg,thread=multi - always use this to enable parallel tcg (otherwise all guest CPUs run on one host CPU)
  • -smp cpus=4 - define number of CPUs in the guest (maximum CPUs: 32)
  • -boot menu=on - Firmware: enable interactive mode (boot prompt)
  • -boot order=c - Firmware: Boot from hard disc
  • -boot order=d - Firmware: Boot from CD/DVD
  • -serial mon:stdio use serial console
  • -nographic - disable artist graphic card emulation, so no graphics output
  • -fw_cfg pdc_debug,string=255, enable all firmware debug infos

How to build QEMU from source

Check out the qemu git tree

Run configure, e.g.

  • (for system emulation) ./configure --target-list=hppa-softmmu --enable-numa
  • (for user emulation) ./configure --target-list=hppa-linux-user --disable-stack-protector --prefix=/home/qemu-hppa/chroot-unstable --interp-prefix=/home/qemu-hppa/chroot-unstable --static

Run "make"

Emulation guest targets

Linux

  • Linux kernel >= 4.14 runs best, with initial optimizations added for kernels >= 4.9.
  • Prefer the Tulip NIC, then e1000 over the rtl8129 card. The latter gives irq issues with Dino emulation.

Debian Linux QEMU image for parisc

Download Debian hard disc image:

wget http://backup.parisc-linux.org/qemu/debian-10-hdd-img.tar.bz2

Unzip image:

tar xvfj debian-10-hdd-img.tar.bz2

Run qemu:

./hppa-softmmu/qemu-system-hppa -drive file=debian-10-hdd.img -nographic -serial mon:stdio -accel tcg,thread=multi -smp cpus=4 

Log in as root, root password is "rootme"

How to run QEMU with Debian-10 installer image

  • Create a virtual hard disc once:
qemu-img create -f qcow2 hdd.img 50G
./hppa-softmmu/qemu-system-hppa -drive file=hdd.img -drive file=debian-10.0-hppa-NETINST-1.iso,media=cdrom -boot order=d -nographic -serial mon:stdio 
  • Choose typical installation options, the defaults are OK.
  • Either skip the step "Configure the Package manager", or configure the mirror as with hostname "ftp.ports.debian.org", and directory "/debian-ports"
  • Shut down virtual machine after installation
  • Start emulator with installed operating system any time:
./hppa-softmmu/qemu-system-hppa -drive file=hdd.img -nographic -serial mon:stdio -accel tcg,thread=multi -smp cpus=2 
  • Edit the sources.list (/etc/apt/sources.list) file:
deb http://ftp.ports.debian.org/debian-ports unstable main
deb [arch=all] http://ftp.debian.org/debian unstable main 
deb-src http://ftp.debian.org/debian unstable main


HP-UX

  • Still LASI NIC emulation and NCR 710 Emulation needed in order to be able to boot older HP-UX releases.
  • Astrobaby wrote about his test results.
  • The "INTERRUPT KEY" mentioned sometimes by HP-UX can be emulated with the "Ctrl-\" key combination
  • In case you lost the HP-UX root password, boot at ISL 'hpux -is' and then give a new password with running "passwd".
  • How to test dtwm Windows Manager: start "xinit", then run "/usr/dt/bin/dtwm".

NetBSD

Images at http://nycdn.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD-daily/HEAD/latest/images/

Info at https://www.netbsd.org/releases/current.html

KERNEL=netbsd
qemu-system-hppa \
       -kernel ${KERNEL} \
       -drive file=hdd.img \
       -drive file=NetBSD-8.99.37-hppa.iso,media=cdrom \
       -nographic \
       -serial telnet::55555,server
  • at least NetBSD-8 required.
  • NetBSD-7 doesn't work, since the trap handler code is complaining about the stack pointer it sees in the trap frame. 0xa0 for the stack pointer isn't good (analyzed with Nick Hudson <nick.hudson@gmx.co.uk>):
    • insanity: 'tf->tf_sp >= minsp && tf->tf_sp < maxsp' at trap:556 type 0xf tf 0xe00040 lwp 0xe38140 sp 0xa0 pc 0x200240

(info by Nick Hudson <nick.hudson@gmx.co.uk>)

OSF/MkLinux

Download at ftp://ftp.cirr.com/pub/hppa/mklinux/ The file root_ext2_g.dd.bin.gz doesn't cleanly decompress.. so I did a gzip -dc into root_ext2_g.dd.bin.

MkLinux sources: https://github.com/slp/osfmk-mklinux

qemu-system-hppa -boot c -drive if=scsi,bus=0,index=3,file=root_ext2_g.dd.bin,format=raw \
       -serial mon:stdio -nographic -m 128 

It boots, but fails during device detection because Qemu currently emulates a B160, while MkLinux expects a HP700. So it fails to see the LASI chip below the GSC bridge.

NVM bootdata Bad Checksum (0)
OSF Mach boot
: /mach
text (0x95618) at 0x11000
data (0x48594) at 0xa8000
Mach 3.0 VERSION(PMK1.1): cb <pmk1_1>; Wed Nov 26 17:20:37 MET 1997; mach_kernel/PRODUCTION (cameleon)
HP9000/
unknown machine type 0x502
good luck :-)
, 0K Icache, 0K Dcache, 256 entry shared TLB)
Warning: unsupported module at ffc00000 (type:7 svers:0 hvers:50)
Stack Trace (depth=1):
     0x00084d68
End of Stack 

(info by Jason Stevens <neozeed@gmail.com>)

Future QEMU work

Still need to do:

  • Add Dino/Lasi serial port
  • Harmony sound card in Lasi
  • Does HP-UX has some kind of "sleep" assembler instruction in it's idle loop which can be used to lower qemu power consumption?
  • Fix virtio-drivers in SeaBIOS (endianess-bugs, because SeaBIOS is originally only Little-endian from x86)
  • More correct emulation of B160L in Qemu
  • Emulate a 712 and/or j5000/c3000 machine
  • Emulate built-in LASI SCI controller instead of PCI SCSI add-on card
  • Elroy PCI emulation, then emulate e.g. a C3000?
  • PA2.0/64bit (low prio)
  • ...
  • Push SeaBIOS changes upstream!!

List of QEmu important patches

Screenshots

HP-UX booting up

Error creating thumbnail: convert: unable to open image `/var/www/html/images-parisc/c/cf/Qemu-hpux-cde1.png': No such file or directory @ error/blob.c/OpenBlob/2643.
convert: unable to open file `/var/www/html/images-parisc/c/cf/Qemu-hpux-cde1.png' @ error/png.c/ReadPNGImage/3733.
convert: no images defined `/tmp/transform_18cdba6-1.png' @ error/convert.c/ConvertImageCommand/3046.

HP-UX CDE Login screen

Error creating thumbnail: convert: unable to open image `/var/www/html/images-parisc/9/92/Qemu-hpux-cde2.png': No such file or directory @ error/blob.c/OpenBlob/2643.
convert: unable to open file `/var/www/html/images-parisc/9/92/Qemu-hpux-cde2.png' @ error/png.c/ReadPNGImage/3733.
convert: no images defined `/tmp/transform_224c055-1.png' @ error/convert.c/ConvertImageCommand/3046.

HP-UX CDE initial screen

Error creating thumbnail: convert: unable to open image `/var/www/html/images-parisc/3/3c/Qemu-hpux-cde3.png': No such file or directory @ error/blob.c/OpenBlob/2643.
convert: unable to open file `/var/www/html/images-parisc/3/3c/Qemu-hpux-cde3.png' @ error/png.c/ReadPNGImage/3733.
convert: no images defined `/tmp/transform_1995264-1.png' @ error/convert.c/ConvertImageCommand/3046.

Some applications started in CDE

Error creating thumbnail: convert: unable to open image `/var/www/html/images-parisc/c/c6/Qemu-hpux-cde4.png': No such file or directory @ error/blob.c/OpenBlob/2643.
convert: unable to open file `/var/www/html/images-parisc/c/c6/Qemu-hpux-cde4.png' @ error/png.c/ReadPNGImage/3733.
convert: no images defined `/tmp/transform_644436-1.png' @ error/convert.c/ConvertImageCommand/3046.
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